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基于图式理论之口译的理解及记忆

发布时间:2020-07-09 21:35 论文编辑:若诗 价格:150 所属栏目:英语论文 TAG: 英语论文范文  英语论文提纲  

本文是英语论文,The thesis is based on Schema Theory, which mainly studies the role of SchemaTheory in comprehension and memory of interpretation of speeches given by Chineseleader Li Keqiang. Although comprehension and memory may cause somedi

本文是英语论文,The thesis is based on Schema Theory, which mainly studies the role of SchemaTheory in comprehension and memory of interpretation of speeches given by Chineseleader Li Keqiang. Although comprehension and memory may cause somedisturbance when interpreting, storing linguistic schema, formal schema and contentschema can help the interpreter comprehend and memorize.From the analysis of the comprehension memory of interpretation the Schema Theory, it can be concluded that the Schema Theory is helpful for thecomprehension and memory in the progress of interpreting practice. To guarantee thesmooth interpreting, it’s pivotal for the interpreter to build the related schemata in hisor her brain. Specifically, they should enrich and broaden their experience andstudying field to accumulate the schemata. The linguistic schema is the basis of theformal schema and content schema. Without the language knowledge, theinterpretation won’t be continued, which can be regarded as the first step ininterpreting. The formal schema also acts as an important role in comprehension andmemory. It is regarded as the types of forms of literature, structure, figure of speechand logical structure of disparate texts, which can help the interpreter predict thefollowing content. 

 

Chapter OneINTRODUCTION

 

As far as the main contents of the thesis are concerned, the main contents of thethesis are comprehension and memory in the process of interpreting. Comprehensionand memory are two important abilities that an interpreter must grasp ininterpreting. The source language is usually not the interpreter's mother tongue, andspeakers come from different countries speaking in different styles with expressionhabits, accents and other phonemes, which makes it difficult for interpreters to dointerpretation. Therefore, this thesis will put forward some methods to help improvethe abilities of comprehension and memory so as to improve the quality ofinterpretation.From the perspective of the theory used, this thesis mainly uses SchemaTheory. Schema Theory is a theoretical model to explain psychological process incognitive psychology. It describes the construction of mental models in humancognitive process, and it can also help interpreters in the process of interpreting underthe guidance of Schema Theory.This thesis aims to explore the comprehension and memory during interpretingbased on Schema Theory. This thesis makes a derailed study of the comprehensionand memory in interpreting and the reasons causing the difficulties of comprehensionand memory. The most important part in the thesis is how Schema Theory guides andaffects comprehension and memory in interpreting by analyzing the cases of speechesgiven by Premier Li Keqiang.The thesis falls into six parts as follows:The first chapter is introduction. It is about the research background and aimsand significance as well as the structure of the thesis.The second chapter is the literature review. It includes three parts, theintroduction of Schema Theory, the study of comprehension and memory ofinterpreting, the study of interpreting from the perspective of Schema Theory.The third chapter discusses the theoretical framework of Schema Theory. In thischapter, the author mainly gives an overview of Schema Theory in more detailsincluding its definition, features and categories of schema.The fourth chapter puts an emphasis on comprehension during interpreting fromthe perspective of Schema Theory based on the interpretation of speeches given byPremier Li Keqiang. Comprehension plays a significant role in interpretation. The quality of interpretation lies on the degree of comprehension of the interpreters. In thischapter, the author mainly makes analyses on the schema existing in thecomprehension in interpretation using the speeches given by Premier Li Keqiang,which shows the significance of the Schema Theory on the comprehension ininterpretation.

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Chapter TwoLITERATURE REVIEW

 

2.1 The Studies of Schema Theory
The origin of modern use of schema can be dated back to Sir Frederic C. Bartlett,who wrote the book Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology(1932). When he approached the theory of remembering, he used the experiments byHead, who proposed that anything that participated in the conscious movement of ourbodies was added to the model of ourselves and became part of these schemata (Head,1920, p.606).Though the term of “schema” was discussed by various of philosophers, it didn’tgain widespread popularity until 1970s when some celebrated papers of schema werepublished. In 1977, Rumelhart and Ortony indicated that schema were data structuresfor representing the generic concepts stored in memory. And Rumelhart alsointerpreted the schema as “building blocks of cognition” (1980). Minsky developedschema into frame (1975). The idea was challenged by an American philosopherDonald Davidson. He put forward his idea about schema in his paper On the Very Ideaof a Conceptual Schema. He mainly discussed the philosophical idea by approachingfrom linguistics (1974). Later, Carrel further classified the schema and proposed theconception of linguistic schema (1984). Cook thought that schema was the existedknowledge and background knowledge in the mind (1994). Oller increased theconception of the abstract schema and perfected the standard of the classification(1995). According to Iran-Nejad & Winsler, they viewed schema as the a deep orunderlying sequence of events or actions, and schema instantiation as the process ofmatching the underlying sequence and the input sequence (2000).

 

2.2 The Study of Comprehension and Memory of Interpreting
In the early nineteenth century, according to German theologian FriedrichSchleiermacher, interpreting was viewed as simple verbal transfer between translationand interpreting, which was considered as the most primitive conception ofinterpreting. He hold the opinion that “interpreting was a merely mechanical task thatcould be performed by anyone with a modest proficiency in both languages, andwhere, so long as obvious errors were avoided, there was little difference betweenbetter and worse renditions” (Schleiermacher, 1997, p.227). Later, some scholarsfound that lexical equivalence was not enough to interpret when they applied to twolanguages that were of great difference. So they began to take interest in how torealize equivalence from the syntactic perspective. It was not until 1960s that peoplefound interpreting involving cognitive processes which were much more complicated than direct interpretation of lexical units and syntactic structures. Therefore the urgefor more scientific studies on interpreting emerged around 1970. And many scholarsjoined his group in the 1980s, thereafter the cognitive-psychological reorientation ofinterpreting studies appeared.In order to explore the component processes of interpreting and how they fittogether and related to one another, many scholars have proposed various processingmodels. The earliest and most general description of interpreting processes can dateback to Herbert, who stated that interpreting consists of three major parts, namely, “(a)understanding; (b) conversion; (c) delivery” (Herbert,1952, p.9).Traditionally, memory can be divided into two categories, which are long-termmemory and short-term memory. Hermann Ebbinghaus made the first rigorousexperimental investigation of human memory in 1885 (Anderson, 1980). Kintschtermed the long-term memory as permanent memory ( Pöchhacker, 2004). Liu Miqingthought that the reason that the short-term memory could became the main object inthe research of memory interpreting was the interpreting memory owned thischaracteristic (2003)

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.Chapter Three THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK.......................................10
3.1 The Development and Definition of Schema Theory.................................... 10
3.2 The Features of Schema.................................................................................12
3.3 The Classification of Schema Theory............................................................ 13
Chapter Four Comprehension in Interpreting from thePerspective of Schema Theory -- Case Analysis on SpeechesGiven by Premier Li Keqiang in 2018.............15
4.1 Comprehension in Interpreting Based on Schema Theory.............................15
4.2 How to Comprehend: Schema-related Activation..................................18
4.3 The Impacts of Schema Theory on Comprehension in Interpretation-- CaseAnalysis on Speeches Given by Premier Li Keqiang in 2018............................. 19
CHAPTER FIVE MEMORY IN INTERPRETING FROM THEPERSPECTIVE OF SCHEMA  ANALYSIS ONSPEECHES GIVEN BY PREMIER LI KEQIANG IN 2018.........31
5.1 The Memory in Interpreting Based on Schema Theory.................................31
5.2 How to Memorize: Schema-related Activation..............................................34
5.3 The Impacts of Schema Theory on Memory in Interpretation-- Case Analysison Speeches Given by Premier Li Keqiang in 2018............................................ 35

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CHAPTER FIVEMEMORY IN INTERPRETING FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF SCHEMATHEORY – CASE ANALYSIS ON SPEECHES GIVEN BY PREMIER LIKEQIANG IN 2018

 

5.1 The Memory in Interpreting Based on Schema Theory
A good memory is a skill that an interpreter must possess and a prerequisite foran interpreter to be able to use his or her ability to interpret. Memory includes threeprocesses: input, storage and reproduction. It can be divided into instantaneousmemory, short-term memory  long-term memory.Studies have shown that instantaneous memory can only keep the languageinformation for 0.25 to 2 seconds, after which the memorized information will disappear. It is the shortest memory in the brain. Interpreting, especially simultaneousinterpretation requires interpreter to respond quickly. In fact, it emphasizes that theinterpreter should have the ability to obtain information instantaneously, which is alsoone of the basic qualities that interpreters need to possess.Short-term memory can not only obtain the information that the speaker isdiscussing, but also activate the relevant information in long-term memory. However,short-term memory is characterized by small capacity and short duration. Therefore,the information memorized in this period should be used as soon as possible,otherwise, it will be forgotten if the time is delayed for a long time.Long-term memory has a great influence on our interpretation. The informationof long-term memory is experiential, and everything people have heard, seen andexperienced can be left in long-term memory, which can be extracted at any time andcombined with the information being heard, so as to help people understand theinformation more thoroughly. For interpreters, the more knowledge stores in brain, thericher the empirical knowledge is, the more able to play the best level ininterpretation.